Casa Real de Bucay
1st Capital of Abra
 
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Footnotes

(1)
 Document: European Charter of the Architectural Heritage; Adopted by the Council of Europe 1975. On-line version: http://www.icomos.org/docs/euroch_e.html.
(2)
Endangered Fil-Hispanic Architecture, Papers from the Fisrt International Congress on Fil-Hispanic Architecture, by several authors. Instituto Cervantes, Manila, 2005, p. v.
(3)
The decree of Governor General Narciso Claveria creating the new province says that Abra’s provincial limits “will reach to the South towards the head of the Abra River, and will remain indeterminate to the North until such time when new acquisitions over the country which is not yet assimilated ('pais no reducido') would require otherwise.” NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 2, Fol. 28 to 31-B
   This situation still exists today. Current geodetic maps of the Philippines label Abra’s limits to the North, Northwest and East as “approximate.”
(4)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 8, Fol. 118.
(5)
Two of the five rivers flow east from Mount Data, the Chico and Ahin rivers, emptying respectively into the Cagayan and Magat Rivers. The other three empty into the South China Sea, namely Abra that flows north towards the sea south of Vigan, Amburayan flowing west through La Union and into the sea, and Agno flowing southwest through Pangasinan to the Gulf of Lingayen.
(6)
Letter of Fr. Bernardo Lago to the Governor of Ilocos Sur, 1828, manuscript not dated. NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 2, Fol. 1.
(7)
Letter of Fr. Lago 29 May 1837 in the Augustinian Archives of Madrid, Misiones de Filipinas 1680/1890, doc. N. 41. In Isacio Rodriguez, Historia de la Provincia Augustiniana del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de Filipinas, Vol. III, pag. 446.
(8)
Letter of Fr. Bernardo Lago to the Governor of Ilocos Sur, 1828, not dated. NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 2, Fols. 1 to 3-B.
(9)
Angel Perez, OSA, Igorrotes: Estudio Geográfico y Etnográfico Sobre Algunos Distritos del Norte de Luzon, Manila 1902, page 269. Translation by Enriqueta Fox, Birgit Keith, Anthony Lauria Jr., and William Henry Scot, UP Baguio, 1988.
(10)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 2, Fol. 28 to 31-B. A facsimile of the entire decree accompanied by a transcription of its original Spanish and an English translation by the author can be seen on-line at http://jrperdigon.webatu.com/Bucay/CreacionAbraIntro.html
(11)
As reported in an affidavit by the provincial Secretary of Ilocos Sur: NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 5, Fols. 73 to 73-B. Claveria’s decree appointing Tajonera Governor can be read in NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 3, Fol. 32.
(12)
The author is still searching for primary archival documentation on the three expeditions, at least the first, in 1849, which seems to be the seminal point and during which the geodetic maps were produced. Copies of some undocumented materials, including a copy of Tajonera’s geodetic maps, are found in the archives of Ex-Ambassador Cariño in Tayum from which I conclude these generic notes. That such expeditions took place is confirmed, among others, by a letter of request by Tajonera to be reimbursed for money spent “to attract andreduce to His Majesty’s Government the naturals of the diverse races in the pagan territory traversed by the columns under my command during expeditions taken to the interior of said territory” (emphasis supplied). In NAP: EP, Abra vol. III: 1849-1868, Exp. 8, Fol. 251. See 6. Provincial consolidation effort: the Tajonera expeditions later in the study.
(13)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 4, Fols. 44 to 44-B.
(14)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 5, Fol. 90.
(15)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 7, Fol. 125.
(16)
The photos of Tinguian houses and granary are from The Tinguian, Social, Religious, and Economic Life of a Philippine Tribe by Fay-Cooper Cole, The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 1922, Plates XXXIX, XL, XLI and LV.
(17)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 9, Fol. 133.
(18)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 1, Fols. 1-2.
(19)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 1, Fols. 11-12.
(20)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 1, Fol. 15.
(21)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 1, Fol. 13.
(22)
Angel Perez, OSA, Igorrotes: Estudio Geográfico y Etnográfico Sobre Algunos Distritos del Norte de Luzon, Manila 1902, pages 274-275. Translation by Enriqueta Fox, Birgit Keith, Anthony Lauria Jr., and William Henry Scot, UP Baguio, 1988.
(23)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 27, Fol. 319. The affidavit was signed only by the ‘third lieutenant’ in town who that day was in charge of the town affairs because “the Gobernadorcillo was out of town, the first lieutenant was sick and the second was arrested.”
(24)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 29, Fol. 335.
(25)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 29, Fols. 334-343.
(26)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 8, Fols. 130 to 132.
(27)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 8, Fol. 127.
(28)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 8, Fol. 139.
(29)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 8, Fol. 128.
(30)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 14, Fol. 158.
(31)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 14, Fols. 170 and 171.
(32)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 14, Fols. 159 to 159-B.
(33)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 14, Fols. 170 and 171.
(34)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 14, Fol. 171.
(35)
Guillermo Tejon, OP, Juan Villaverde O.P. Missionary and Road Builder, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, 1982, pp.138-144.
(36)
Tomas Cortes, Sobre los Caminos de las provincias del Norte, Manila, 1829. Reference in the Cariño Papers.
(37)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. III: 1849-1868, Exp. 8, Fol. 251.
(38)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. III: 1849-1868, Exp. 8, Fol. 255.
(39)
See the decree of foundation issued by General Governor Claveria in its preamble. NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Fol. 28.
(40)
Real Orden of April 25, 1880. In Isacio Rodriguez, Historia de la Provincia Augustiniana del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de Filipinas, Vol. III, pag. 139.
(41)
The paper trail with the proposals, economics, attempts to bid out the riverine transport system and reversed decisions to straighten out inefficiencies covers several expedientes in the National Archives and some 130 folios. NAP: EP, Abra vol. III: 1849-1868, Fols. 120 to 227-B. A study in depth of this riverine transport system is beyond this study’scope but could be a most interesting topic for research.
(42)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. Tomo III: 1849-1868, Numberless Exp., Fols. 121-121 B.
(43)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp. 8, Fol. 104.
(44)
Buceta, Manuel and Bravo, Felipe, both  O.S.A. Diccionario Geográfico, Estadístico, Histórico de las Islas Filipinas, Madrid 1850.
(45)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. III: 1849-1868, Exp. 3, Fol. 93.
(46)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 6, Fol. 119 to 119-B.
(47)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 6, Fol. 120 to 122-B.
(48)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. II: 1846-1849, Exp.15 & 16, Fols. 172 to 212-B.
(49)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 14, Fol. 354.
(50)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 8, Fol. 139-B.
(51)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. III: 1849-1868, Exp. 7, Fol. 244.
(52)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. III: 1849-1868, Exp. 17, Fol. 370.
(53)
NAP: EP, Abra vol. III: 1849-1868, Exp. 18, Fols. 371-387.
(54)
Full case file of proceedings to trasfer the Capital in NAP: EP, Abra vol. I: 1826-1869, Exp. 14, Fol. 347-357-B .